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The Penguin Dictionary of Art and Artists

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Peter and Linda Murray

The Penguin Dictionary of

ART & ARTISTS

PENGUIN REFERENCE BOOKS

A DICTIONARY OF ART AND ARTISTS
Peter and Linda Murray were both trained as painters but
turned to the history of art and went to the Courtauld Institute
as students immediately after the war. They were married in
1947, in the middle of their final examinations.

They published

work, a translation of Heinrich Wolfflin's Classic
Art, in 1952. Since then they have collaborated on several
translations as well as a book on the art of the Renaissance, but
this was their first book. One wrote a complete entry which the
other then picked holes in and rewrote; as a result they are now
unable to tell who wrote which entries and must take joint
their

first

joint

responsibility for everything.

Linda Murray was an Extra-Mural Lecturer for the Univerof London, and has written The High Renaissance and
Mannerism and on Michelangelo, as well as a novel, The Dark
Fire, based on the life of Caravaggio. Peter Murray was, until
1980, Professor of the History of Art at Birkbeck College in the
University of London. He has written several books on the
history of art and architecture, including a section of A History
of English Architecture (Pelican Books), as well as gallery
sity

catalogues.

PETER AND LINDA MURRAY

THE PENGUIN DICTIONARY OF
ART AND ARTISTS

FIFTH EDITION

PENGUIN BOOKS

Penguin Books Ltd, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England

New York, New York 10010, U.S.A.
Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia
Penguin Books Canada Ltd, 2801 John Street, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 1B4
Penguin Books (N.Z.) Ltd, 182-190 Wairau Road, Auckland 10, New Zealand
Penguin Books, 40 West 23rd Street,

First

published 1959

Reprinted with revisions 1960
Reprinted 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965. 1966, 1967

Revised edition

published by

first

Further revised edition published

in

Thames & Hudson 1965

Penguin Reference Books 1968

Reprinted 1969, 1971 (twice)

Third edition 1972

Reprinted 1973, 1975 (three times)
F; ourth edition 1976

Reprinted 1977, 1978 (twice), 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982
Fifth edition 1983

Reprinted 1984
Copyright

© Peter and Linda Murray, 1959, 1960, 1965, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1983
All rights reserved

Made and printed

in

by Hazell Watson

Great Britain

& Viney Ltd,

Member of the BPCC Group,
Set in 8/9.5

Except
this

that

it

Aylesbury, Bucks
Times Roman (Linotron 202)

in the

book

is

United States of America,

sold subject to the condition

shall not,

by way of trade or otherwise,

be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated
without the publisher's prior consent in any form of
binding or cover other than that in which it is
published and without a similar condition
including this condition being imposed

on the subsequent purchaser

FOR OUR PARENTS

ABBREVIATIONS USED

IN

THE DICTIONARY

Akad.

Academy,
Academia
Accademia
Akademie

Naz.

Nazionale

ARA

Associate of the

NC

North Carolina

NEAC
NG

New

b.
B.C.

Royal Academy
born
Before Christ

Berks.

Berkshire

Bib.

Bibliotheque

BM

British

Acad.
Accad.

B^cks.

N.

North

Nat. Marit.

National Maritime

Mus.

NGofS

Museum

English Art Club

National Gallery
National Gallery of

Scotland

Museum

Buckinghamshire
about

c.

circa,

Cal.

California

Cath.

NJ

New

NPG

National Portrait Gallery

nr

near

NSW

New South Wales
New York
New Zealand

Cathedral

NY
NZ

CBA

Center for British Art

OED

cf.

confer,

Jersey

Oxford English

OM

Order of Merit

Col.

compare
Christ Church
Colorado

Pa

Pennsylvania

Coll.

Collection, College

Pal.

Palais, Palace, Palazzo

Conn.

Connecticut

PRA

President of the

d.

died

DCL

Doctor of

ed.

edition

eg-

exempli gratia

Fdn

Foundation

ff.

following

Fitzwm

Fitzwilliam

Ch. Ch.

Dictionary

Royal Academy
Civil

PRB

Law

RA

RAMC

Pre-Raphaelite

Brotherhood
Royal Academy,
Royal Academician
Royal Army Medical
Corps

Rhode Island
Rijksmuseum

Fla

Florida

RI

Fr.

French

Rijksmus.

Gall.

Gallery, Galleria

RSA

Ger.

German

S

Gk

Greek

SC

Herts.

Hertfordshire

S.M.

Royal Scottish Academy
Saint, San, Sankt, South
South Carolina
Santa Maria

Hist.

Historical

SNPG

Scottish National

Hosp.

Hospital

i.e.

id est; that

Inst.

Portrait Gallery

Soc.

Society

Institute

Span.

Spanish

Ital.

Italian

SS.

Saints, Santissimo (a)

K-H

Kunsthistorisches

St

Saint

Lat.

Latin

Sta

Santa

Lines.

Lincolnshire

Staffs.

Staffordshire

Museum

Sto

Santo

Mof
Md

MA

of

is

Modern Art

Maryland

Univ.

University

Mass.

Massachusetts

United States

Met. Mus.
Mich.

Metropolitan

US
USSR

Middx
Mo.

Museum

Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics

Michigan
Middlesex

V&A

Victoria and Albert

Museum

Missouri

MS, MSS

Manuscript, manuscripts

Va

Virginia

Mus.

Museum, Musee

Wilts.

Wiltshire

VI

LIST OF

GENERAL (NON-BIOGRAPHICAL) ARTICLES

Absorbent Ground

Block-book

Abstract Art

Blot Drawing

Abstract Expressionism

Blue Four, The, see Jawlensky
Blue Rider, The, see Blaue Reiter, Der
Boast

Abstraction-Creation

Academy
Academy

Action Painting

Bodegdn
Body Colour
Bolus Ground

Alia Prima

Bondieuserie

Altarpiece,see Ancona-, Pala, Polyptych,

Bottega

Figure

Acrylic

Reredos

Boucharde, see Stone Carving

Alto-rilievo,5ee Relief

Bozzetto

Amorino

Breakfast Piece

Anamorphosis

Anti-cerne

Broad Manner, see Fine Manner
Bronze
Briicke, Die
Brushwork

Antwerp Mannerists

Burin

Aquatint, see Engraving

Burr, see Engraving

Ancona
Anonimo

Arabesque
Architectonic

Cabinet Picture

Armature

Calligraphic

Armory Show

Camaieu, see

Arricciato.see Fresco

Camden Town Group

Ars Moriendi

Camera Obscura, Lucida

Art Brut

Capriccio

Art Nouveau

Caricature

Art Unions

Cartellino

Ascription, see Attribution

Cartoon
Cassone

Ashcan School

Grisaille

and Chiaroscuro

and Bronze

Atelier

Casting, see Plaster

Attribution

Cavo-rilievo,see Relief

Au

Charcoal

Premier Coup

Autograph
Automatism

Chiaroscuro
Christus Patiens, Triumphans

Chromolithography, see Engraving
Cinquecento

Bambino
Bambocciata
Bancket
Barbizon School
Baroque

Cire Perdue, see Bronze

Bas-Relief see Relief

Cloisonnisme, see Bernard
Cobra, see Appel
Cold Colour, Tone

Classic, Classical,

Claw

Cliche- Verre, see Engraving

,

Bauhaus, The
Baxter Prints
'Before

all

Letters', see

Romantic

Chisel, see Stone Carving

Proof

Collage

Bentname

Complementary Colour

Biedermeierstil

Biomorphic Art

Composition
Concrete Art

Bistre

Constructivism

Bitumen

Consular Diptych, see Diptych

Blaue Reiter, Der
Blauen Vier, Die, see Jawlensky

Conte
Continuous Representation

vn

LIST OF

GENERAL(NON-BIOGRAPHICAL) ARTICLES

Contour
Contrapposto

Fixative

Fontainebleau, Schools of

Conversation Piece

Foreshortening

Cool Colour, Tone, see Cold Colour, Tone
Cosmati

Forgeries, see Fakes

Costruzione Legittima

Fraglia

Found Object

Coulisse

Fragment

Counterproof
Craquelure
Crayon
Croquis, see Sketch

Fresco

Cross-hatching

Garzone
Genre
Gesso
Ghent Altar, see Eyck

Frottage

Futurism

Cubism

Dada
Dance of Death
Danube School
Dead Colour, see Lay-In

Giornata, see Fresco
Giotteschi, Giottesques

Glasgow School

Deesis

Glazing

Del.,Delin.

Glyptic, see Sculpture

Desco da Parto

Golden Section

Design

Gothic

DeStijl,seeStijl

Gouache

Diptych

Graffito, see Sgraffito

Disegno
Distemper

Graphic Arts
Graver, see Burin

Divisionism, see Optical Mixtures

Grisaille

Doelenstuk, Schutterstuk

Grotesque

Dotted Print

Ground
Group of Eight, see Ashcan School
Group of Seven, see Seven

Draperyman
Drill, see

Stone Carving

Drypoint, see Engraving

Guild

Eau-forte

Hague School

Eclectic, see Carracci

Half-Tones
Handling
Hatching

Ecole Royale des Eleves Proteges
Eidometropolis, Eidophusikon see Girtin,

Herm,Term

Loutherbourg
Encaustic

Wax

Hermetic Cubism

Engraving

History Painting

Esquisse

Hortus Conclusus

Etching, see Engraving

Euston Road

Hot Colour, Tone
Hours of Turin

Exc, Excudit

Hudson River School

Expressionism

Ex Voto

Icon
Ideal Art

F.,

Fee,

Illusionism

Fecit

F.F.

Imago

Facture, Fattura

Impasto

Fakes and Forgeries

Impression

Pietatis

Fat

Impressionism

Fauve

Imprimitura

Fine

Manner

Inc.

vui

LIST OF

GENERALIN ON -BIOGRAPHICAL) ARTICLES
Heem

Intaglio

Melancholia

International Gothic

Merz.seeSchwitters
Metaphysical Art, see Pittura Metafisica

Intimisme

Still-Life, see

Intonaco, see Fresco

Mezzo-rilievo, see Relief

Inv., Invenit

Mezzotint, see Engraving

Italianizers

Miniature

Journeyman

Mixed Method

Misericordia,

Jugendstil, see Art

Madonna

della

Mobile
Modelling
Modello, Modelletto

Nouveau

Keeping, see Values

Key

Monochrome
Monotype

Kinetic Art

Montage
Monumental

Kit Kat

Kleinmeister, Die

Morbidezza
Mosaic
Motive

Kortegaardjes
Kunstverein

Laocoon
Lay Figure

Multiples

Mural see Wall-Painting
,

Lay-In
Nabis, Les
Naive Art

Lean, see Fat
Liber Studiorum, see Liber Veritatis
Liber Veritatis

Narrative Painting

Nature Morte, see
Nazarener

Limning
Linear Composition
Linocut, see Engraving

Still-Life

NEAC

Lithography, see Engraving
Local Colour

Neoclassicism

London Group
Lost Wax, see Bronze

Neue

Lukasbriider, see Nazarener

Niello

Luke, Academy of S.

Nocturne

Neo-Impressionism

New

Sachlichkeit
English Art Club, see

Luminism

Nonfinito

Macchiaioli

Non-Objective Art
Norwich School
Novecento

Maculature
Madonnieri
Maesta
Magischer Realismus

Objet Trouve, see Found Object
Odalisque
CEuvre

Mahlstick

Offset, see Counterproof

Mai

Oil-Painting

Malerisch

Oleograph
Omega Workshops, see Fry

Mandorla
ManiereCriblee, see Dotted Print

Ontbijt, see Breakfast Piece

Manner
Mannerism
Maquette

Op Art
Optical Mixtures
Orphic Cubism, Orphisme
Ottocento

Masses
Masters,

NEAC

The

Little, see

Kleinmeister

Matiere

P.,Pinx.,Pinxit

Mattoir, see Engraving

Painterly, see Malerisch

Medici e Speziali

Painting Techniques, see Acrylic, Encaustic

Medium

Wax,
IX

Fresco, Gouache, Oil Painting,

LIST OF

GENERAL (NON-BIOGR A PH1C A L) ARTICLES

Pastel, Secco, Size Colour,

Tempera,

Quadraturista

Quadro Riportato

Watercolour

Quattrocento

Pala
Paliotto

Papier Colle

Rayonism
Ready-made, see Duchamp

Paris, School of

Realism

Pastel

Realta, Pittori della, see Ceruti

Pastiche, Pasticcio

Recession

Patina

Refuses, see Salon

Patroon

Relief

Pattern-Book

Remarque Proofs

Pedigree, see Provenance

Renaissance

Peinture a 1'Essence, see Degas

Replica

Panorama

Pencil

Repoussoir

Pensiero

Reredos, Retable

Pentimento

Retroussage

Perspective

Rilievo,see Relief

Photographic Etching, see Engraving

Pieta

Rocker
Rococo
Romanists
Romantic, see Classic

Pittura Metafisica

Rome

Plaster Casting

Rose + Croix, see Symbolism
Royal Academy, see Academy
Rubenisme

Picture Plane

Picturesque

Plasticity

Plate

Mark

Prize

Plein Air

Sachlichkeit, Die neue, see

Pochade
Pointillism, see Optical Mixtures

Neue

Sachlichkeit

Pointing Machine

Sacra Conversazione

Polychromatic Sculpture

Salon

Polymer, see Acrylic
Polyptych

Sanguine

Pompier

School

Schildersbent, see

Bentname

Pontata

Schutterstuk, see Doelenstuk

Pont-Aven
Pop Art

Scorzo, Iscorzo

Porte-Crayon

Sculp.

Post-Impressionism

Sculpture

Poussinisme, see Rubenisme

Scumbling
Secco

PRB,

Screenprint, see Serigraphy

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Predella

Secession, see Sezession

Primary Colours
Priming

Section d'Or

Seicento

Primitive
Prix de
Profil

Rome, see Rome

Sepia
Prize

Perdu

Serigraphy
Settecento

Pronkstilleven

Seven, Group of

Proof

Sezession

Proportion

Sfumato

Provenance
Punch, see Stone Carving
Purism

Sgraffito

Putto

Silk-screen, see Serigraphy

see Workshop Production
Form

Shop Work,
Significant

LIST OF

GENERAL (NON-BIOGR A PHICAL) ARTICLES

Silver Point

Tone Values, see Values

Sinopia

Torso

Size Colour

Totentanz, see Dance of Death

Sketch

Townscape

Social Realism

Trecento

Soft

Ground Etching, see Engraving

Triptych

Soft Style

Trois Crayons

Sopra Porte
Sotto in Su
Spolvero
Squared

Trompe

Y<x\\,see Illusionism

Underpainting
Utrecht School

Stabile

Staffage

Valori Plastici

Stanze
State

Values
Vanishing Point, see Perspective

Steel Engraving. Steel-faced

Vanitas,see Still-Life

Stiacciato,see Relief

Variant

Stijl,

De

Varnishing

Stippled

Day

Veduta

Still-Life

Drawing

Vehicle

Stone Carving

Verismo

Stopping Out, see Engraving

Vernissage, see Varnishing

Study

Vesperbild, see Pieta

Stump

Vingt, Les

Style Criticism

Vorticism

Super-Realism, see Surrealism

Suprematism

Wall-Painting

Surrealism

Wall-Tomb
Wanderjahre

Symbolism, Synthetism

Warm Colour, Tone
Tachisme

Waste-Mould, see Plaster
Watercolour

Tactile Values

Weepers
Weicher Stil, see Soft Style
Woodcut, see Engraving
Workshop Production

Taille-Douce, see Engraving
Tectonic, see Architectonic

Tempera
Tenebrism
Terracotta, see Plaster
Terribilita

XX,

Tesserae

Xylography, see Engraving

Tondo

XI

see Vingt, Les

Day

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
The purpose of this Dictionary

we hope,

is

to act as a

companion

to serve as a useful quick reference book.

to the inquiring gallery visitor, and,

We have restricted the scope to the arts

of painting, sculpture, and engraving in Western Europe and North America, and to a

One good
we are almost totally ignorant of the arts of other periods
book we have come to realize that we have a restricted knowl-

period beginning about the year 1300 and continuing up to the present day.

reason for this restriction

is

that

and places; since writing this
edge of the field we have undertaken to cover. Like the companion Dictionary of Music in
this series we have to combine articles on technical terms and processes with biographies of

many artists as possible, and we decided to try to cover all the technical terms, processes,
and artistic movements as fully as we could, even at the expense of biographies. There have
been many thousands of painters and sculptors in the last six centuries and most of them are
in that monument of scholarship, Thieme and Becker's Allgemeines Kiinstlerlexikon in fortyas

odd large volumes.
There is one exception to our desire to give a definition for all technical terms, and that is
when they are already adequately defined - even in the technical sense - in a normal
English Dictionary (we have used the Concise Oxford): examples of this are 'Vignette',

'Diorama', or 'Retable'.
the arts

we have

given

it

Where

a definition

seemed

to us not to cover a

common

usage

in

here.

We have tried, first, to give the
and such other dates as seemed important for
an understanding of an artist's career. Next, we have tried to give the reader some idea of
what his works look like, usually by relating them to other and perhaps better-known artists
by means of frequent cross-references. Thirdly, wc have given, in most cases, a list of
museums which have pictures or sculpture by him. These lists are not intended to be
exhaustive or critical. We have obviously tended to include museums in Great Britain or the
United States and to omit those in Russia or, say, Bulgaria. For equally obvious reasons we
have not mentioned pictures in private collections unless they are crucial to the artist's
development, but this is very rare indeed. As far as we know, the pictures stated to be in a
In the biographical articles

dates of birth and death, or

given
are

museum

still

are in that

activity,

museum, but

recovering from the

as the National

our aim has been threefold.

known

this

is

less

War and no modern

and Tate Galleries

in

simple than
catalogue

London - seem

is

it

sounds, for

many museums

available, while others- such

to play a constant

game

of musical

chairs with their possessions.

and we have made
by following up the cross-references, the reader can not only
expand the information in the original entry but should also gain a better idea of X's
relationship to his contemporaries. In any given entry several other names will occur in
normal type: these may or may not have separate entries of their own, but we do not

Cross-references. Capital letters are used to indicate cross-references,
this systematic so that,

think that following them up will, in this case, add anything to the reader's knowledge

ofX.

The spelling of names may present some difficulties, especially as de This or van
That will be found under T, the prefixes being disregarded, while the Italian Giovanni
di Paolo will be found under G and not P. In many cases we have given crossreferences, but the best rule will be to look under everything possible before deciding
that whoever it is has been left out.

Spelling.

much precision as we can manage, and the distinction between 1520/25 and 1520-25 should be noted. The first means 'at some point in the
period, but the exact pointis unknown', the second, 'beginning in 1520 and ending in
1525'. Authorities, of course, are not cited: we hope our fellow-professionals will find
some amusement in spotting them, and to those who spot themselves we offer our

Dates. Dates are given with as

gTateful thanks.

London, September 1957
xiii

PREFACE TO THE SECOND PENGUIN EDITION
Since this Dictionary was published in 1959

it has been reprinted with a number of minor
was published by Thames & Hudson in London, and in
America, which contained a revision of the original text and a considerable number of new
articles. This edition was very fully illustrated and also contained two bibliographies. In this
new Penguin edition the text is substantially the same as that of the illustrated edition with
a small number of revisions and new entries. The principal difference between this and the
original Penguin edition lies therefore in the larger number of biographies contained in this
new edition, since the principal general articles are virtually unchanged and only a compara-

revisions, but in 1965 an edition

tively small

number of new biographies

are inclined to feel that

many

19th-

of earlier artists will be found in this edition.

and 20th-century

artists are

included

We

in this edition

because of their topical interest rather than their merits, but it is certainly true that there is
a lively interest in their work and we have therefore provided an outline of their careers.

From

a historical point of view the

justifiable

book

is

now

out of balance, but

it

may well be

that this

is

on other grounds.
January 1968

PREFACE TO THE THIRD
AND FOURTH PENGUIN EDITIONS
This Dictionary
is

is

becoming

a bibliographical nightmare.

The

present, eighteenth, printing

either the third or fourth edition in the proper sense of the word: in fact, each printing

has had small changes which distinguish

it from its predecessors, but there have also been
which this is one, that can reasonably be called editions. We have
taken the opportunity to add a great many small changes and a smaller number of entirely
new entries, mostly of sculptors.

major

re-settings, of

Christmas Day, 1974

PREFACE TO THE FIFTH PENGUIN EDITION
The opportunity offered by our publishers to prepare an entirely new and re-set edition has
allowed us to make many changes and additions. Almost every entry has been modified in
some way since the last major revision of 1976 and a considerable number of new entries,
both general and biographical, has been added: we estimate that the book has been increased by something like twenty per cent. Many of the changes have been made necessary
by the great volume of research and publication in recent years, and we have done our best
to include these results; special thanks are due to Le and Helen Ettlinger, who read us with
such close attention that we have had to revise many things.
June 1982

xiv

Abb ate,

Niccold dell' (c. 1512-71), was a Modenese painter whose style was
founded on Mantegna's illusionism and especially on Correggio's softness.
He painted frescoes in Modena (1546) and Bologna (1547: now in the
University), and was in France by 1552, helping Primaticcio with the
decoration of the Royal chateau at Fontainebleau. Most of his work there
has disappeared. He spent the rest of his life in France, where, with
Primaticcio, he represents the end of the First School of Fontainebleau.
He introduced the Mannerist landscape into France: there is a fine example
in the NG, London, and other works are in Florence (Uffizi), Modena,
Oxford (Ch. Ch.), Paris (Louvre), Rome (Borghese), Vienna, and elsewhere.
Abbott, Lemuel Francis (c. 1760-1803), was an English portrait painter,
famous for his Nelson, of which many replicas and variants exist. These and
other portraits are in London (NPG, Nat. Marit. Mus., Tate).
Absorbent Ground. A chalk ground, on canvas or panel, prepared without
oil so that it will absorb the oil from the paint, leaving it matt and very
quick-drying.

Abstract Art depends upon

the assumption that specifically aesthetic values

and colours and are entirely independent of the subject of
the painting or sculpture. This view is of great antiquity and has resulted
reside in forms

in

much

semi-magical character as well as pure decoration.

art of a

It

also

Moslem countries, where representation of the human figure is
prohibited. The 'liberating' influence of the camera allowed the painter to
prevails in

neglect his social duty as a recorder of things and events, and, at the

came

time, late in the 19th century, Impressionism

same

to be regarded as a

dead-end of naturalism, thus leading to an increased emphasis on formal
values and ultimately to Cubism, Constructivism, Tachisme, and the
rest. It is

The

not synonymous with

Non- Objective Art.
may be found

philosophical justification of abstract art

do not now intend

in Plato:

'I

beauty of shapes what most people would expect,
such as that of living creatures or pictures, but
straight lines and curves
and the surfaces or solid forms produced out of these by lathes and rulers
These things are not beautiful relatively, like other things,
and squares.
but always and naturally and absolutely' (Philebus).
Abstract Expressionism. combination of Abstract Art and Expressionism which amounts to little more than automatic painting - i.e. allow-by

.

.

.

.

.

.

A

Surrealist idea) by the creation
of involuntary shapes and dribbles of paint. Abstract Impressionism -

ing the subconscious to express itself (a

which appears to be another name for the same thing - is supposed to
derive from the intricate mesh of paint which forms the surface of
Monet's last pictures, as half-blind, he struggled to find pictorial equivalents for his optical sensations. Abstract Impressionism has been defined
(by E. De Kooning, 1956) thus: 'Retaining the quiet uniform pattern of
strokes that spread over the canvas without climax or emphasis, these followers keep the Impressionist manner of looking at a scene but leave out
the scene.' See also Action Painting, Tachisme.

Abstraction -Creation.

A

loose association of abstract artists,

many

of

ACADEMY
them refugees from Nazi Germany, founded in Paris in 1931. They published an annual 'Abstraction-Creation' between 1932 and 1936.
Academy. The name, derived from Plato's Academy, was used in Italy in the
15th century by groups of humanists meeting together for discussion. The
academies of art are connected with Leonardo da Vinci in his
Milanese period and Bertoldo in Florence. Little is known of the aims and
activities of the 'Academia Leonardi Vinci', as it was called, but Bertoldo
was in charge of the statues and sculpture-school in the Medici Garden,
fostered by Lorenzo de' Medici, 'II Magnifico' (d.\492), and had the disfirst

young Michelangelo. During the 16th century these
groups acquired more formal aims and character, and the term was, by
extension, applied to groups of artists meeting privately for study. Baccio
Bandinelli founded one in 1531, in the quarters granted him in the
Vatican, and another in Florence c.1550. The first Academy of Fine Arts,
tinction of helping the

in 1563 in Florence by Vasari, with at
head the Grand Duke Cosimo and the absent and eighty-eight-year-old
Michelangelo, who, by his personal prestige, had done more than anyone to raise the fine arts from the level of the mechanical to the equal of
the liberal arts. Vasari's Accademia di Disegno was intended to be a
teaching as well as an honorific body, for the main purpose of an academy
was always to raise the social status of the artist; but though almost every
artist of repute in Italy became a member, its teaching programme was
soon abandoned. The Accademia di S. Luca, founded in Rome in 1593,
with Federico Zuccaro as its president, also had a similarly ambitious
programme which came to nothing. Other such bodies were founded in
Italy - notably in Bologna in 1598, where it became intimately associated
with the Carracci - and the custom of artists meeting under the patronage of an enlightened nobleman or connoisseur, to draw from the nude,
thus forming private teaching academies, was widespread by the middle of

properly speaking, was founded
its

the 17th century.

The French Academy, charged with
language, was founded by Richelieu
Sculpture,

first

founded

but did not reach

its

in

in

the study and preservation of the
1634: the

Academy

all-powerful position until 1661,

the control of Colbert,

who saw

in

when

a golden opportunity to

it

play a part in the aggrandizement of the monarchy.

obtained a

new

of Painting and

1648, was closely modelled on the Italian ones,

constitution for

it,

which made

responsible for the training of artists

programmes which he planned. He

who

it

came under
make the arts

it

By 1664 he had

primarily a teaching body,

could then carry out the

artistic

founded the French Academy in
Rome in 1666, as a school to which the most successful students {see
Ecole des Eleves Proteges) could be sent for further training, and intended
to make Poussin its head, but the latter's death prevented this. The French
Academy reached perhaps its greatest power under Lebrun, who became
Director in 1683. This dual character of learned body, with a strict hierarchy of members graded according to the form of act they practised (history painters at the top, portraitists next, and so on down to landscape and
genre) and with the privilege of public exhibition exclusively reserved to
it, combined with a state school, became the pattern for most of the Academies founded during the 17th and 18th centuries. The majority were not,
also

ACTION PAINTING
however, successful until after the middle of the 18th century,

demies of

all

when

aca-

kinds were an established part of the pattern of intellectual

life.

In

England the autocratic constitution and implication for

state control

of the arts under the French system led to a long delay in founding an

academy. Nevertheless, the need for a training-school was recognized, and
two in St Martin's Lane,
London, one of which was run first by Thornhill and then by his son-in-

several private academies were set up, including

law,

Hogarth.

The Royal Academy

in London, founded in 1768 with provision for forty
Academicians and (in 1769) twenty Associates, later increased to thirty,
was one of the late-comers. But it is an exception to the generality in that
and though it
it was the outcome of private enterprise among artists,
enjoyed Royal patronage from the start (in fact, it owed its initial success
to the keen interest of George III), has never had any state control, sub-

monopoly of exhibitions. The efforts of its first President, Reynolds, established it as a school, and his personal prestige and intellectual
attainments were reflected in the social status which membership conferred,
while the open character of its yearly exhibitions ensured a flow of new
talent. The first American Academy, founded in Philadelphia in 1805, grew
out of a private institution (the Peale Mus.), and the National Academy
of Design was founded in 1826, under Morse.
It was mainly during the reign of late 19th-century conservatism that
Academies became the centre of opposition to all new ideas in art, with
results that have brought nothing but discredit on themselves, so that the
term 'academic' has become the synonym of dullness, conventionalism, and
prejudice. This cleavage between official bodies and the mass of artists
outside the academic fold has bedevilled the relations between artists and
public, fostered unfortunate extremes of taste, and rendered the fair
appreciation of academic art difficult and the criticism of art particularly
unfruitful. There are, however, signs that it is now realized, inside and
outside the Academies, that this cleavage is to the detriment of all.
Academy Figure. A painting, statue or drawing, generally about half lifesize, of a nude figure executed solely for purposes of instruction or practice
and not as a work of art.
Acrylic paint - properly acrylic vinyl polymer emulsion paint - is an entirely
sidies, or

new

synthetic paint which allows a combination of the traditional oil and

watercolour techniques.

It is

a plastic emulsion which

is

soluble in water,

so that very thin, transparent, washes can be applied, as in classical watercolour.

At the same

Alla Prima

time,

it is

possible to apply a very thick impasto, as

is also a special polymer medium
which has a function similar to that of oil in oil-painting. The synthetic substances are said to be permanent and to adhere to almost any surface, but
it is perhaps early to judge this.
Action Painting. Splashing and dribbling paint on canvas. The basic
assumption is that the Unconscious will take over and produce a work of
art. The technique is claimed to go back to Leonardo, who suggested using
stains on walls as a starting point for designing (cf. Blot): the essential
difference is that Leonardo used the method solely as a means of stimu-

in

oil-painting,

and there

ADAM
lating the creative imagination and not as an end in itself. Action Painting
should not be confused with the intellectual type of Abstract art in which
some thought is necessary, but its advocates claim that the beauty of the

'calligraphy'

-

i.e.

the

the artist's wrist - constitutes

movements of

tification, as well as distinguishing

its

jus-

from Tachisme. See Pollock and

it

Tobey.

Adam,

Lambert-Sigisbert (1700-59), a French sculptor, went to

and there won the competition

Rome

in 1723

which he did
not execute. He returned to Paris in 1733 and was received into the Academy on his Neptune calming the Waves (1737: Louvre), which is derived
directly from Bernini, while his Neptune at Versailles is also markedly
Baroque; yet he also published a collection of Greek and Roman sculpture
for the Trevi Fountain (1731),

('Recueil des sculptures antiques

Aertsen,

Pieter (1508/9-75),

was

.

.

.',

Paris, 1754).

born

a painter,

in

Amsterdam, who con-

tinued the tradition of peasant genre established by

unaffected by the

Romanists. He

married and entered the
possibly on account of religion.
religious

Bruegel, and was

Antwerp c.1535, where he
Guild, but he returned to Amsterdam in 1556,
settled in

Many

of his pictures were destroyed in the

many

troubles of 1566, but there are

survivors, mostly with

kitchen or genre scenes in the foreground and a religious scene (such as
Christ in the

House of Martha and Mary)

in

the background. His

still-life

painting was important in the development of the genre in the Netherlands

and even in Italy: it has been argued that he influenced both Caravaggio
and Velazquez, though it is difficult to see how they could have known
his work, and Bassano is a more likely source, at least for Caravaggio.
His surviving religious pictures, while

less influential,

forward, realistic tradition of Netherlandish

art.

show

the straight-

His wife's nephew, Joachim

Bueckelaer, was

his pupil. There are works by him in Amsterdam,
Antwerp, (Mus. and Mus. Mayer van den Bergh), Berlin, Birmingham,
Brussels, Copenhagen, Cracow, Genoa, Leningrad, Pisa, Rotterdam,
Rouen, Stockholm, Uppsala (University) and Vienna.
Afro (1912-76) was an Italian abstract painter whose real name was Afro
Basaldella. He lived in Rome, but his style derives from Picasso and Braque;
he worked a good deal in the US. There are murals by him in the Banco
Nazionale del Lavoro, Rome, and the UNESCO building in Paris. There is
a painting in Berlin and a drawing in London (Tate).
Agostino di Duccio (1418-81), sculptor, was born in Florence. He became
a mercenary soldier in 1433, and did not return to Florence until after 1442,
by which date he had executed the altar in Modena Cathedral, accepted as
his earliest independent work. Its figures in deep relief against a plain background suggest that he was probably a pupil of Jacopo della Quercia,
who worked at S. Petronio, Bologna, from 1425 to 1438. By 1446 he
had again left Florence, accused, with his brother, of theft from a church.
From about 1450 until 1457 he worked on his masterpiece - the tombs and
the extensive series of low reliefs forming the sculptural decoration of

the

interior

of the

Tempio Malatestiano

in

Rimini,

reconstructed by

Sigismondo Malatesta who employed Alberti as architect and Piero della
Francesca as painter. Agostino worked on the fagade of the Oratory of S.
Bernardino, Perugia, until 1462, and in 1463 returned to Florence, where

he entered the Guild, and began work on a block of marble which later
was used by Michelangelo for his David. In 1473 he went back to Perugia,

remaining there until his death.
Agostino's marble reliefs are usually of an even flatness, and

his flat,

decorative, and intensely linear style has none of the illusionistic effects

used by
examples

Donatello
in

or the

Rossellino

brothers. There are further

Florence (Bargello), London (V

&

A), Paris (Louvre), and

Washington (NG).

Aikman, William (1682-1731), was a Scottish portrait painter, pupil of
Medina, who succeeded to his business in Edinburgh, but after Kneller's
death in 1723 migrated to London, where he had many literary friends,
Allan Ramsay, the poet and father of the
was portrayed by him; the picture is inscribed: 'Here painted on
this canvas clout By Aikman's hand is Ramsay's snout.' He is chiefly
remarkable as having studied in Rome (1707-10) before this became common; after this he went on to Constantinople and Syria. There are selfportraits in Edinburgh (NG of S) and Florence (Uffizi). He continued
Medina's series of portraits in the Royal Coll. of Surgeons, Edinburgh (one
including Swift and Pope.
painter,

is

dated 1715).

Albani, Francesco (1578-1660), was a Bolognese painter contemporary with
Guido Reni, whose fellow-pupil he was, first under the Mannerist Calvaert and then, c.1595, at the Carracci Academy. He also had strong
links with Domenichino and the paintings in the Oratory of S. Colombano, Bologna, may have been worked on by all three, 1600-1601. Albani

Rome with Reni in 1601/2, but, while Reni struck out on his own,
Albani and Domenichino worked for Annibale Carracci; in particular, on
a series of important landscapes with small figures of sacred subjects (now

went to

in

Rome,

in

Rome

Pal. Doria).

by

Italian

These were among the
artists,

earliest landscapes painted

and, although Carracci was certainly the

designer of the whole series, both Albani and Domenichino learned

much

from them. After Annibale Carracci's death in 1609 Albani worked in
Rome and Bologna, returning to Bologna in 1625, where he worked less
and less; but he did produce many replicas of small mythological subjects
which were influential on French painters of the 18th century: the Louvre
and Fontainebleau have good examples, but most of his works are in Rome
and Bologna.
Albers, Josef (1888-1976), was born in Germany and studied at Berlin,
Essen and Munich, where he worked under F. von Stuck, who had taught
Klee and Kandinsky. Albers subsequently studied and taught at the
Bauhaus until its closure in 1933, when he emigrated to the USA, where
he became principal of the Yale school of design in 1950. His geometric
art is summed up in his series called Homage to the Square (1949 onwards,
one painting is in the Tate, London). He also wrote an important book on
colour, to which he attached an importance equal to that of form, 'Interaction of Color' (1963), and his 'Despite Straight Lines' was published posthumously. There are large murals by him in the Graduate Center, Harvard
(1950), and the Time-Life building, New York (1961).
Alberti, Leon Baptista (c. 1404-72), was a Florentine humanist, principally
famous as an architect, but who is also said to have practised as a painter

ALBERTINELLI
and sculptor. The only work attributable to him in these arts is the plaque
Self-portrait (?), in Washington (NG). His importance in the arts of painting and sculpture is on account of his theoretical writings, 'De Sculptura'
and especially 'Delia Pittura' (1435), which gives the first exposition in the
Renaissance of the theory of Perspective and of the Costruzione

Legittima, as well as of History painting.
Albertinelli, Mariotto (1474-1515), was a Florentine painter who collaborated with Fra Bartolommeo from before 1500, and was taken into
partnership in 1508 in the S. Marco workshop. After three years he abandoned painting for inn-keeping, which he said was less exacting and less
open to criticism, declaring, so the story goes, that he was 'sick of this
everlasting talk of perspective'. His best work is the Visitation (1503) in the
Uffizi, Florence, but there is a charming example in London (Courtauld
Inst.).

Aldegrever,

Heinrich (1502-1555/61), was a

German engraver

of religious

manner of Durer, popular scenes and ornamental patterns
adapted from Italian arabesques. See Kleinmeister.
Algardi, Alessandro (1595 or perhaps 1598-1654), was a Bolognese sculptor
who worked in Rome and represented the classicism of the Bolognese
subjects in the

Academy in opposition
Carracci and worked in

to

Bernini.

the Carracci

He was
Academy

pupil of Lodovico
Bologna before going

a
in

Rome c.1625, where he became a friend of Domenichino, also a
Bolognese Carracci pupil. His early works - the tomb of Cardinal Millini
(d. 1629) in S. M. del Popolo, and the Frangipane portrait busts in S. Marcello - show his marked dependence on antique portrait types. His S. Philip
Neri (S.M. in Vallicella), an imaginary portrait of the saint (canonized
1622), is another example of his skill in portraying people he never set eyes
on; but his Cardinal L. Zacchia (1626/37: Berlin) shows what he could do
when working from life. A terracotta bust of Cardinal P. E. Zacchia
(d.1605) dates from very late in Algardi's career (71654): it is now in London (V & A), and the marble made from it is in a private coll. in Florence.
This, however, is probably by an assistant since Algardi grew so fat in his
last years that he was apparently unable to carve. The bust of Bracciolini,
also in London (V & A), once attributed to him and now attributed to
Finelli, is one of several which have been given to Bernini as well as to
Algardi. On the whole, Algardi's are graver in deportment and have
to

greater inward characterization than Bernini's highly extrovert portraits.
There can be no doubt, however, that Algardi borrowed from Bernini,
whose portrait statue of Urban VIII underlies Algardi's Innocent X, begun
in 1645 for the Conservatori Palace in Rome as a companion to Bernini's
Urban; while the tomb of Leo XI (St Peter's 1634-52) is a chastened and
plain white marble version of Bernini's polychrome tomb of Urban VIII.
Algardi's leadership of the classical opposition to Bernini was recognized
in 1640 by his election as Principe of the Academy of S. Luke, but his real
success came under Innocent X (1644-55), when Bernini was in disgrace.
His only important relief also dates from this period: the Attila in St Peter's
of 1646-53, which is a piece of technical virtuosity, but is less a relief than
a Carracci altarpiece in marble. The full-size terracotta modello was exhibited in St Peter's in 1950: one of the few of its kind to have survived, it

ALTDORFER
is

now

where

in the Biblioteca Vallicelliana,
in

Rome

Manchester,

and

in S.

Minneapolis,

Rome. There

are other works else-

Paolo, Bologna, Cleveland Ohio, Hamburg,

New York

(Met.

Mus.),

Paris

(Louvre),

Ravenna, and Yale.
Allan, David (1744-96), sometimes called the 'Scottish Hogarth', was, more
accurately, a painter of genre and portraits anticipating Wilkie. He lived
in Rome 1764-C.1777 and won a medal for a history picture in 1773. He
studied under Gavin Hamilton and was influenced by Neoclassical
ideas. There are works in Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Alla Prima

(Ital.

at first) describes the technique, general since the

19th

century but considered freakish and slapdash before then, of completing

one session in full colour and with such opacity that
neither previous drawing nor underpainting - if these exist - modifies the
the picture surface in

final effect.

Au

premier coup

is

the French term.

Allori, Cristofano (1577-1621), was the son of

a Florentine Mannerist
and the great-nephew of Bronzino. He
1610 and influenced by Caravaggio, as may be seen in his

painter, Alessandro (1535-1607),

was

in

Rome

in

Head of Holofernes, said to portray the artist's
unkind mistress and himself as the dead Holofernes. The original is probably the picture, signed and dated 1613, in the Royal Coll., but another
in Florence (Pitti) may also be Autograph: there are numerous replicas
and copies. Allori was also a fine portraitist, as shown by the portrait of
his friend, Count Davanzati Bostici, in Oxford (Ashmolean), which has
recently also acquired a portrait by Alessandro Allori.
Allston, Washington (1779-1843), was the first important American landscape painter. He was trained in London (1801-3) and travelled in Europe
before returning to America. He made a second visit to Europe in 1810
and was elected
in 1818, the year in which he returned to America.
His early works were Italianate landscapes in the Claude manner, but his
intensely Romantic outlook caused him to admire Fuseli and Turner,
and ultimately to imitate the hyper-romanticism of Martin. Most of his
works are in America, but his portrait of his lifelong friend, S. T. Coleridge,
is in
London (NPG) and Birmingham has an extravagant landscape
masterpiece, Judith with the

ARA

attributed to him. See

Alma-Tadema,

Hudson River School.

Lawrence (1836-1912), was a Dutch painter of genre
scenes set in Greece, Rome, and Ancient Egypt, who settled in England
in 1870 and became naturalized. His early work followed that of the Baron
Leys in Belgium, in scenes of medieval history, but a visit to Naples and
Pompeii in 1863 changed his subject-matter to a form of classicizing genre
in which he was successful and popular (it has been described as similar
to Hollywood epics.) He became an
in 1876, and RA in 1879, and
was knighted in 1899. His works were numbered in Roman numerals from
1850, reaching Opus CCCCVIII, and have a detailed surface and particularization of marble, drapery, and flesh similar to the confections of
Lord Leighton. There are works in Baltimore (Walters), Boston, Cambridge Mass. (Fogg), Cardiff, Dordrecht, The Hague (Mesdag), London
(Tate, V & A, Guildhall), Philadelphia, and Washington (Corcoran).
Altarpiece see Ancona, Pala, Polyptych and Reredos.
Altdorfer, Albrecht (c. 1480-1538), a Bavarian painter, worked in RegensSir

ARA

ALTICHIERO
burg (Ratisbon), becoming City architect and a councillor. In 1511 certainly, and probably earlier, he travelled along the Danube and visited the
Austrian Alps where the scenery moved him to become the first landscape
painter in the modern sense. His earliest dated paintings (1507: Berlin and
Bremen) show the influence of Cranach and Durer, but the landscape
is already very important, and by 1510 the figure is quite unimportant only the rustle of the trees beside the mountain lake matters.
in his pictures are the

George

in the Forest,

complement of

his

Munich), and their gestures and

as well as their colour,

show

The

figures

romantic use of landscape

(5.

facial expressions,

dramatic

his use of subjective distortion for

and emotional ends. He also made many drawings and etchings of pure landscape, the importance of which makes him the head of the Danube
School and of the Kleinmeister. His major works are the S. Florian
Altar (1518: mostly still in S. Florian's Monastery, near Linz) and Alexander's Victory (1529: Munich): other works are in Regensburg and in Basle,
Cleveland Ohio, Cologne, Florence (Uffizi), London (N G), Nuremberg,
and Vienna.
Altichiero was a Veronese painter of the late 14th century, whose style was
formed on Giotto's frescoes in Padua. With his helper Avanzo he painted
frescoes in Padua (II Santo and, after 1377, Oratorio di S. Giorgio), and,
at the end of the century, he founded the school of Verona with his frescoes
in Sant'

Anastasia.

Alto-Rilievo see Relief.
Alunno di Domenico', i.e.
'

'Pupil of

Domenico' (Ghirlandaio).

invented by Berenson for the Florentine painter to
of the designs for Florentine

and

identified as

the

predella

won

of

di

Giovanni,

Ghirlandaio's

in

late 15th

by Berenson has been

who was commissioned

Adoration

name

general acceptance, but the

assistant of Ghirlandaio postulated

Bartolommeo

A

he ascribed most

woodcut book-illustrations of the

century. This wholesale attribution has not
actual pupil

whom

the

Founding

to paint

Hospital,

Florence, in 1488.

Amannati is the more correct form of Ammanati.
Amberger, Christoph (c. 1500-61/2), was an Augsburg

portrait painter whose
works resemble those of Holbein, but with a strong Venetian influence,
perhaps due to Paris Bordone, who may have visited Augsburg in 1540.
There is a signed altarpiece, of 1560, in S. Anna, Augsburg, but the only
signed portrait by him seems to be the Emperor Charles V (Berlin). There
are works in Augsburg, Birmingham (Barber Inst.), Glasgow, Munich,
Philadelphia (Johnson), Toledo Ohio, Vienna, and York.
'Amico di Sandro' (Friend of Sandro, i.e. Botticelli) was the name given by
Berenson to the artist he invented as the painter of several pictures which
seemed to lie between the styles of Botticelli and Filippino Lippi; e.g.
two Filippinos in the NG, London, and a Botticelli in the V & A, London.
His creator later repudiated him and the pictures have been redistributed,
although an attempt has been made to resuscitate him.
Amigoni (Amiconi), Jacopo (16827-1752), was a Venetian history and portrait painter who worked all over Europe in a more or less international
style, the Venetian Rococo, with elements compounded from Sebastiano
Ricci and French Rococo, and, later, Tiepolo. He worked for some

ANDREA
years for the Elector of Bavaria and then

came

to

London

in 1730,

where

he painted several decorative cycles (e.g. Rickmansworth, near London,

Moor Park Golf Club) and portraits; though these, according to Vertue,
were 'not his inclination - nor Talent'. In 1739 he returned to Venice with
a small fortune, and it was he who persuaded Canaletto to visit London
(1746). In 1747 he went to Madrid as Court painter: Vertue records that
news of his death there reached London just as his finest works - in St
James's Square - were destroyed. The altarpiece of Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge, is his: other works are in Darmstadt, London (NPG: an allegorical
portrait of Queen Caroline, Tate), Madrid, Schleissheim, Sheffield,
Venice, and York.
Amman at! (more properly, Amannati), Bartolommeo (1511-92), was a Florentine sculptor influenced by Michelangelo and Sansovino. His best-known
work is the Neptune on the fountain (1563-75) in the Piazza della Signoria
at Florence, of which a contemporary said: 'Ammanato, Ammanato, che
bel marmo hai rovinato!' (what fine marble you have ruined!). Of the
bronze figures surrounding the fountain he probably executed only the
bearded marine god; it is possible that some of the others were by Giovanni
Bologna. In his old age, affected by Counter-Reformation austerity, he
is said to have destroyed some of his secular works. He also wrote an
important letter (published in 1582) setting out his ideas on decency and
on the sculptor's responsibility for his work, which is a document of Mannerist art theory after the Council of Trent. His chief claim to fame rests
on his work as an architect. In 1550 he married Laura Battiferri, who was
well-known as a poet.
Amorino (Ital. little love). A small Cupid or Putto.
Anamorphosis (Gk., distortion of form). Prominent in the foreground of
Holbein's Ambassadors (1533: London, NG) is an extremely elongated
and distorted representation of a skull which can only be recognized by
viewing it through a special lens or at an extreme angle. Such a representation - not unlike the reflection in a distorting mirror - is called an
Anamorphosis. They are rare as serious works of

art,

and no convincing

explanation for the skull has so far been proposed, but there

contemporary, Edward VI (1546: London,

is

a similar,

NPG).

(Ital.). A large altarpiece composed of several compartments made in
one piece with the frame. See Pal a and Polyptych.
Andrea del Castagno see Castagno.
Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530) was, with Fra Bartolommeo, the most
important painter working in Florence at the time when Raphael and
Michelangelo were active in Rome. He was the best painter (as opposed
to draughtsman) in 16th-century Florence and had more feeling for tone
and colour than any of his contemporaries south of Venice. He was the first
Florentine to depart from the coloured drawing approach in favour of
composition by patches of coloured light and shade, although his actual
draughtsmanship is derived from Michelangelo. He also borrowed from the
newly arrived engravings of Durer. As a fresco painter he made his name

Ancon a

with a series of grisailles in the Cloister of the Scalzi, depicting the story
of the Baptist (1511-26), and the Miracles of S. Filippo Benizzi (1509-10)
SS. Annunziata. These were followed by his most famous frescoes.

in

ANGELICO
epitomizing the High Renaissance style
(1514) and the

Andrea went

Madonna

to

France

in

Florence, the Birth of the Virgin

del Sacco (1525), both also in the Annunziata.

in

1518/19 at the invitation of Francis

I

and was

well received there, but he broke his contract in order to return to his wife,
in the opinion of contemporaries, ruined him. Browning's poem is
probably the best explanation of his failure to live up to his early promise,
but his works are of great importance in the evolution of Florentine paint-

who,

ing, especially the

Holy Families, often

in half-length.

The Madonna

delle

Arpie (1517) in the Uffizi, Florence, is a purely classical work comparable
with Raphael's Madonnas: Sarto is, however, a starting-point for Man-

nerism, since

his pupils

included

Pontormo, Rosso, and Vasari. Out-

works by him in the Royal
Cleveland Ohio, Dresden, London (NG and Wallace

side Florence there are

York (Met. Mus.),

Coll.

including some painted
(NG), and elsewhere.

Paris (Louvre:

Philadelphia, Vienna, Washington

and in Berlin,
Madrid, New

Coll.),

in

France),

Angelico, Fra (c.1387 or perhaps c. 1400-55). Fra Giovanni da Fiesole,
known as the Blessed Angelico, was a Dominican friar who was a friend
of S. Antoninus and knew Popes Eugenius IV and Nicholas V. As a member of the Order of Preachers he used his art for didactic rather than mystic

purposes and the style he evolved was correspondingly simple and direct;
conservative, and yet based on the largeness of form of Giotto and Masaccio, so that the general development of his style begins with a Gothic
quality akin to

Lorenzo Monaco and

runs counter to the trend of Flor-

shown e.g. by Fra Filippo Lippi, although
Washington (NG) is said to have been started by

entine painting in the 1440s as

mysterious tondo in
Angelico and finished by Lippi. He entered the convent at Fiesole and
shared in its vicissitudes at Cortona and Foligno, but he does not seem to
have painted much before 1428, although he seems to have been both a
layman and a painter in 1417. The new theory that he was born c.1400 goes
a long way towards explaining this. The first certainly datable work by him
is the Linaiuoli Madonna (Florence, S. Marco), commissioned in 1433. The
convent of S. Marco was taken over by his Order in 1436 and he decorated
a

with a series of about fifty frescoes, most of them in the cells of the friars
and intended as aids to contemplation, rather than as factual represenit

tations.

At the same time (c.1440) he painted the

altarpieces for S.

Marco

and two other convents: these show the Madonna surrounded by Saints and
are important in the development of the type of altarpiece known as the
Sacra Conversazione. He was called to Rome, probably by Eugenius
IV, to decorate a chapel in the Vatican (c. 1446-9), which still exists. In
1447 he also painted two frescoes in Orvieto Cathedral as part of a Last
Judgement, a scheme which was later finished by Signorelli. He was
elected Prior of Fiesole in 1449 and probably returned to

Rome

after his

three year term expired to paint the Chapel of the Sacrament in the Vatican,
his

now

works

destroyed.
is

in the

He

Museo

died in
di S.

Rome

in 1455.

Marco, Florence,

The
his

biggest collection of

own

convent. Others

are in Cortona, Fiesole, Florence (Uffizi), Perugia, and the Vatican, as well

Boston (Mus. and Gardner), Cambridge Mass., London (NG),
Madrid, Paris (Louvre), Munich, New York (Met. Mus.) and elsewhere.
His most important pupil was Benozzo Gozzoli.

as Berlin,

10

ANTOLINEZ

Anguissola (Anguisciola), Sofonisba (1532/5-1625), claimed to be ninety-six
when van Dyck visited her in Palermo fn 1624. He drew a portrait of her
sketchbook and noted that, though blind, she was still mentally alert.
She was the eldest daughter of a Cremonese nobleman (her five sisters also
painted) and received a good education, painting being only one of her
accomplishments. She studied under local artists and practised a portrait
style based on those of Moretto and Moron e: she painted a few
religious subjects, but most of her work consists of portraits of herself and
in his

Her first dated work is the Self-portrait of 1554 (Vienna); in 1557
her father thanked Michelangelo for his help and advice, and in 1559 she
her family.

Queen, remaining there at least
She was twice married. Though not important as a painter, she
was the first Italian woman artist to win international fame and she opened
the way for later women painters, most of whom were the daughters of
painters and therefore of lower social standing. There are works by her in
Bergamo, Budapest, Florence (Uffizi), Naples and Siena.
Annigoni, Pietro (6.1910). Italian painter. He works in a highly realistic and
dramatic style, and in a deliberate revival of traditional Renaissance techniques in oil, tempera, fresco and drawing, best exemplified in his two portraits of H.M. Queen Elizabeth II. There are works in Florence (Uffizi
Print Room), Milan (Gal. d'Arte Mod.) and frescoes in Florence (S.
Martino) and Pistoia (Madonna del Consiglio).
Anonimo (Ital. anonymous). Often applied to any unknowa Italian painter,
but specifically it refers either to the Anonimo Morelliano (i.e. Marcanton
Michiel), a writer on the art of Venice and N. Italy in the first half of the 16th
century, or to the Anonimo Magliabechiano (or Gaddiano), a Florentine
writer of the same period who was one of Vasari's predecessors.
Antelami, Benedetto, was the chief Italian sculptor before the Pisani. In
1178 he signed and dated a relief of the Deposition in Parma Cathedral;
the Baptistry at Parma, begun in 1196, and some of the sculpture at
Fidenza (formerly called Borgo San Donnino) are attributed to him.
Anti-cerne (Fr. cerne, outline). A contour managed by leaving a white line
of bare canvas between two or more areas of colour. It is, in fact, the
opposite of a black outline, and is a favourite device of Fauve painters.
Antico', Pier Jacopo Bonacolsi called (c. 1460-1528), was Court Sculptor to
the Gonzagas at Mantua. He was influenced by Mantegna and by Donatello, whose Paduan works he may have known. He is recorded as a medallist in 1479 and was in Rome in 1497, where he may have been on other
occasions. His nickname (cf. Moderno) derives from his bronze statuettes
after antique originals, always highly worked and often with gold and silver
inlays and rich gilding. He also restored antiques for Isabella d'Este. The
largest collection of his small copies is in Vienna (K-H Mus.): original
works are very rare. Other museums with examples include Boston,
Florence (Bargello), London (V & A), Modena, New York, and Venice
went

to Spain as a lady-in-waiting to the

ten years.

'

(Ca' d'Oro).

Antoli'nez, Jose (1635-75), was active 1658-73
equivalent of

Velazquez,
ich),

Murillo

in Seville.

in

Madrid, where he was the

In his genre scenes the influence of

as well as that of Murillo,

is

evident - e.g. the Studio (Mun-

but his style derives from the Venetians and from Rubens.
11

He

spec-

ANTONELLO
Immaculate Conception, of
by him are known. He also painted portraits. There are works in Barnard Castle (Bowes Mus.), Copenhagen,
Madrid, Oxford (Ashmolean) and Seville.
Antonello da Messina (c. 1430-79) was the only major S. Italian painter of
the 15th century and the only Italian decisively influenced by the minute
oil-technique associated with the Eycks. He may have been a pupil of the
half-legendary Colantonio in Naples (where he could have seen Flemish
paintings) and there is no reason to suppose he actually visited Flanders.
His mature style combines Flemish detail and technique with Italian
breadth of form. In 1475/6 he was in Venice, where he painted the S. Cassiano altarpiece (now known only from copies and fragments in Vienna):
this was contemporary with the altarpiece of Piero della Francesca (Milan,
Brera) and the one (now destroyed) by Giovanni Bellini for SS Giovanni
ialized in the typically Spanish subject of the

which

at least twenty-five versions

e Paolo.

One

of these three was the

first

great

Sacra Conversazione
- like a
drawn into

to treat the picture space as a continuation of the real space

chapel opening out of the church - so that the spectator

is

the scene in active participation. Antonello's virtuoso technique also influ-

enced the Venetians, especially Giovanni Bellini's portraits, which show
traces of the Flemish type of design favoured by Antonello. Apart from
the Vienna fragments there are works in London (NG: Salvator Mundi,
1465, the first dated work, and others); Paris (Louvre) and Antwerp which
both have works dated 1475, presumably painted in Venice; Berlin,
Bucharest, Messina, Munich, New York, Philadelphia, Rome (Borghese),
Washington, and elsewhere.
Antwerp Mannerists. A term used to describe a group of Antwerp painters, mostly unidentified, working in the early 16th century (c. 1510-30), and
who, strictly speaking, have nothing to do with Mannerism. Their style
is characterized by its use of affected poses and florid ornament, some of
which is Italianate in type. Isenbrandt is related to this group. See also
Italianizers, Romanists.
Appel, Karel (6.1921), is a Dutch painter, born in Amsterdam, who works
in Paris. He exhibited with the group known as Cobra (i.e. Copenhagen,
Brussels, Amsterdam) from 1949. In 1951 he painted a mural for the
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, and he has also produced some book-illustrations, but most of his works are in immensely thick layers of frenziedly
moulded oil paint, Abstract Expressionist in type and similar to the work
of the American Kooning. There are examples in Antwerp, Auckland
NZ, Brussels, Buffalo, Cologne, Copenhagen, The Hague, Liege, London
(Tate), Manchester (Whitworth), New York (Guggenheim), Ottawa,
Pittsburgh (Carnegie), Sheffield, and Utrecht.
Appiani, Andrea (1754-1817), was the leading Lombard Neoclassical painter,
comparable with David. He learned fresco-painting and his first big commission was for frescoes in S. Maria sopra S. Celso, Milan (1792-5).
Napoleon made him his Court Painter in Italy and employed him extensively on frescoes (largely destroyed in 1943) in the Pal. Reale, Milan
(Apotheosis of Napoleon, 1808), as well as at the Villa Reale (now Mus.
of

Modern

Reale.

He

Art, Milan). His masterpiece
also painted

many

portraits,

12

is

the Parnassus (1811) in the Villa

most of which are

in

Milan, but

ARNOLFO

Rome (Accad. and
Mus. d'Arte Mod.)- He was incapacitated by a stroke in 1813.
Apt, Ulrich the Elder (d.1532), was active in Augsburg in 1481. He painted
many portraits, mostly in the style of Hans Holbein I, and several have
been confused with Holbein the Younger's. There are pictures by him in
Augsburg, Florence (Uffizi), Munich, Vienna; and there are two replicas
of a Man and his Wife, 1512, in the Royal Coll. and New York (Met.
there are two splendid ones in Versailles and others in

Mus.).

Aquatint see Engraving.
Arabesque. A flowing linear

decoration. See

Archipenko, Alexander (1887-1964), was

Grotesque.
a

Russian-American abstract

He went to Paris in 1908 and met Modigliani and GaudierBrzeska. He developed a form of Cubist sculpture in which convexities
were replaced by concavities and solids by voids. He exhibited at the
Section d'Or in 1912, but immediately afterwards claimed to have abandoned Cubism. He went to America in 1923. There are works by him in
Cardiff, Detroit, London (Tate), New York (M of MA), Strasbourg and

sculptor.

elsewhere.

Architectonic

in the

in which it is used in art criticism means 'having
and calm grandeur of noble architecture'. A handy

sense

the massive stability

synonym for Monumental.
Arcimboldi, Giuseppe (1527-93). A Milanese painter of fantastic heads
composed of fragments of landscape, vegetables, flowers, etc., much
overrated in his own day (and now) and claimed as an ancestor by the
Surrealists. He worked in a normal style for Milan Cathedral (1549-58) and

Como (1558). Court painter at Prague (1562-87),
appealed to the Hapsburgs, especially Rudolf II, who made
him a Count Palatine. Vienna has several pictures painted for Rudolf II;
other works are in Brescia, Cremona, Graz, Hartford Conn. (Wadsworth
designed tapestries for
his bizarreries

Atheneum), and Innsbruck.

ARETiNOsee Spinello.
Armature. A metal skeleton, usually of flexible lead piping, used to support
clay or wax in the making of a piece of sculpture.
Armitage, Kenneth (6.1916), is a British sculptor who now works almost
exclusively in modelled plaster, subsequently cast in bronze. His figures are

exceedingly thin and

sail-like,

won

with

much

attention given to the effect of

war memorial at Krefeld,
and in 1958 he was the British representative at the Biennale in Venice.
There are works by him in Antwerp (Middelheim Park), Brussels, Buffalo,
of MA),
Leeds, London (Tate, V & A), New York (Brooklyn and
Paris, Rome, and elsewhere.
Armory Show. Held in 1913 in a regimental armoury in New York, this
exhibition was the principal means of introducing 'Modern' - i.e. PostImpressionist - art to the United States.

movement.

In 1956 he

a competition for a

M

Arnolfo

Cambio

probably 1302). Italian architect and sculptor,
A pupil of Nicola Pisano, Arnolfo
worked on his master's Shrine of S. Dominic, Bologna (1264-7), and Pulpit at Siena (1265-8), before going to Rome in 1277 where he made a
portrait of Charles of Anjou (Rome, Conservatori Gall.), which is one of
di

(d.

designer of Florence Cathedral (1300).

13

ARP
modern portrait statues. His tomb of Cardinal de Braye (d.1282)
Domenico at Orvieto, now much altered, fixed the type of wall-tomb
for more than a century, with its arrangement of the dead man lying on
a bier below the Madonna and Child in glory, set in a vertical architectural
frame. He also made a tomb and a bust of Boniface VIII, as part of the
the

first

in S.

Pope's campaign of

artistic

propaganda, and

built ciboria in S.

Paolo fuori

Rome. The famous bronze statue
of S. Peter in S. Peter's is attributed to him. The remains of his sculptural
decoration for Florence Cathedral are in the Cathedral Museum, and other
(1285) and Sta Cecilia (1293), both in

works are in the Bargello, Florence; Boston, and the V & A, London.
Arp, Jean (Hans) (1887-1966), was born in Alsace and studied in Paris, but
also knew Ernst, Klee, and Kandinsky, and exhibited in the second Blaue
Reiter exhibition. In Zurich in 1916 he was one of the co-founders of
Dada, and later, after settling in France, he became a Surrealist, which

may

explain the evident sexual symbolism of his forms. There are works

in Edinburgh, Grenoble, Leeds, London (Tate), New York (M of
and Strasbourg. His 'On My Way', a selection of essays and poems,
1912-47, was published in English. His wife, Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889—
1943) was a Swiss who collaborated with him. She was also associated

by him

MA)

with the Zurich

Dada group.

Cesari, called Cavaliere d'Arpino (1568-1640), was 'the
melancholy champion' of conservative and anaemic Mannerism in
opposition to Caravaggio's naturalist revolution (he employed Caravaggio and outlived him by 30 years), and was patronized by the Vatican and

Arpino, Giuseppe
last

Roman

Princes.

He

designed the mosaics of the

dome

of S. Peter's, painted

the frescoes in S. Martino, Naples (1589-91), and painted huge and dull

Rome, the earliest of 1591 and the last
have examples, including Glasgow, Hull,
London (Wellington Mus.), Oxford (Ashmolean, Ch. Ch.), the Vatican,
and Vienna.

histories in the Conservatori Palace,

Most old

of 1636.

galleries

Arricciato (Arriccio) see Fresco.
Ars Moriendi (Lat. The Art of Dying). One of the most famous Blockbooks, printed in Germany c.1466. It is a devotional work, like the Biblia
Pauperum, and is based
(in London, BM) or on
Master E.

See E.

S.

either

on

block-book of c.1450
(Oxford) by the anonymous

a Netherlandish

a set of engravings

S.

Art Brut see Dubuffet.
Art Nouveau was a 'new

art' which spread across Europe and America in
was mainly a style of architecture and interior decoration
(Horta, van de Velde) and flourished in Belgium and Britain especially,
using flat patterns of writhing vegetable forms based on a naturalistic con-

the 1890s.

It

ception of plants rather than a formalized type of decoration. Cast-iron
lilies and copper tendrils are still with us, as is furniture with heart-shaped
holes in

it.

Ensor was

Belgium, but he

is

movement may be

much

associated with the creators of the
less typical

movement

in

than Morris, whose Arts and Crafts

the progenitor of Art nouveau, or, better

still.

Beards1

ley, whose drawings appeared in the
a periodical which helped to spread the
larized the style commerically. In

first

style.

issue of 'The Studio

The

Germany and
14

posters of

(1893),

Mucha popu-

Austria (see Klimt) the

ASSELYN
magazine 'Jugend' (Youth), which
where it had a great vogue particularly
in ironwork and in decoration - especially in Milan, Turin. Genoa, Mantua
was
London
store.
Barcelona
famous
it is known as Stile Liberty, after the

movement was
was

first

called Jugendstil, after a

published

1896; in Italy,

in

the Spanish centre.

Art Unions. A

characteristically 19th-century institution for disseminating

a love of the arts

and broadening the basis of patronage of

living artists,

among the middle classes. A Union organized an annual exhiand members paid a subscription which entitled them to a print from

especially
bition,

an engraving specially commissioned by the Union, as well as a chance to
win one of the works in the exhibition, bought by the organizers and
offered as a prize in a lottery. This sometimes caused difficulty with antigaming laws, and not everybody agreed with the principle: Lady Eastlake

noted in 1843 - These Art Unions have been most pernicious things - in
other words, a cabal for encouraging trumpery painters. There might as well
.' The first Art Union, the Berlin Kunbe a club for encoring bad singers
.

.

stverein, was formed in 1814, but the first in the English-speaking world
seems to have been the London one, in 1836, followed by Edinburgh (1837,
reorganized 1842), and Glasgow (1841), but the idea was also popular in
America - the American Art-Union seems to date from 1839, and by 1849
had nearly 19,000 members, but in 1852 it had trouble with the New York
State lottery laws. Other states copied the idea, but the Unions seem to have
petered out, although the Glasgow Art Union was still active in the 1930s. A
monthly magazine, The Art-Union, was published in London 1844-8,
renamed The Art Journal from 1849, and was widely influential.
Asam, Cosmas Damian (1686-1739) and Aegid Ouirin (1692-1750), were
German architects who were trained in Rome. Cosmas was also a painter
and Aegid a sculptor, so they could undertake the complete decoration of
all their buildings, e.g. their own house and church in Munich. Their style
shows the move away from the dramatic seriousness of Italian Baroque
towards a lighter and more elegant treatment of religious themes - often
nevertheless deeply emotional - which is typical of German 18th-century
art,

Rococo

rather than

Baroque.

Ascription see Attribution.
Ashcan School. A group of 19th/20th-century American 'realist' painters
and illustrators - the best-known was Bellows, although he was not one
of the original Group of Eight who exhibited in 1908 - whose interest in
the sordid side of city

life

(especially in

New York)

justifies the

nickname.

Asselyn, Jan (1610/15-52). A Dutch Italianate landscape painter, probably
a pupil of E. van de Velde, but whose style was formed on the Arcadian
landscapes of Claude and the Italian Campagna; hence his work resembles

Berchem, Both and Du Jardin.

His best-known picture is a
Dutch independence, The Angry Swan (Amsterdam),
but Beggars at a Monastery (1647: Dresden) is more typical. He spent
about ten years in Italy c. 1634-44. There are works in Berlin, Brussels,
Cambridge (Fitzwm), Cardiff, Edinburgh, Paris, and several in Vienna

that of

political allegory of

(Akad.).

Atelier
art

(Fr. studio).

world.

It is

The

atelier libre

a studio,

open

is

a

common

feature of the Continental

freely but not free,

15

which provides a nude

ATELIER
model in fixed sessions, but no tuition or control. The most famous was
opened c. 1825-30 in Paris by a model called Suisse, and was used by
Delacroix, Courbet, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Cezanne, and other Impressionists. The Atelier Julian, opened in Paris in 1860, was not an atelier
libre since it provided a teacher, though it was more liberal than the official
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, for which it often served as forcing-ground or alternative. Most of the Nabis worked at the Julian, as did Matisse, Derain,
and Leger. Sometimes these ateliers libres are called Academies.
Attribution. When a picture is signed or recorded in a document there can
be little doubt that it is by the painter to whom it is attributed: 'attribution',
however, usually means assigning a picture to its painter on the grounds
of its likeness to works known to be his. This, which involves Style Criticism, can range from moral certainty to mere guess-work, depending on
such factors as the number of certain works known to the person making
the attribution, as well as the degree of his intimacy with them. For this
reason, a conscientious cataloguer gives at least the main reasons for his
.',
decisions, and it is desirable to use phrases like 'Attributed to
.' with some precision.
.', 'Circle of
.', or 'Studio of
'Ascribed to
In normal English usage there is no distinction between Attributed and
Ascribed, but it may be suggested that a useful terminology would be to
.'
to imply a slightly greater degree of dubiety than
keep 'Ascribed to
.'
and 'Follower
'Attributed to. .'. The distinction between 'Studio of
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

maintained in the catalogues of the National Gallery, is similar
- Follower not implying any direct contact with the artist. A Follower may
well be considerably later, whereas an Imitator is self-explanatory.
Audubon, John James (1785-1851), an American naturalist and traveller of
French extraction, studied in Paris under David, before going to America
of

.

.

.',

1803. His most famous works are the illustrations for the 'Birds of
America' (1827-38), the original drawings for which are in New York
(Historical Soc), and the 'Quadrupeds of N. America' (1845-8).

in

Au Premier Coup (Fr.
Autograph. A painting
is

Alla Prima.
work of art is said to be autograph when it
from the hand of the artist to whom it is attributed.

at the first shot) see

or other

thought to be entirely

it can hardly
be expected that the artist should execute every part with his own hand, but
.'
in connection with smaller works indicates
the expression 'Studio of
a desire not to suggest that the work is a copy. In some cases, especially
that of Rubens, one often finds that the original sketch is autograph
and the execution of the finished, large, canvas was entrusted to assistants
overseen by the master, who usually added the final touches.
Automatism. Doodling. Shut your eyes and draw - the subconscious will do

In the case of frescoes or other very large undertakings

.

.

was a favourite Surrealist technique.
14th-century Paduan painter who was the pupil and
apparently inseparable partner of Altichiero.

the rest; hence

Avanzo,

Jacopo.

it

A

(1702-66). A French portrait painter trained in Amsterdam
and influenced by Rembrandt, who became a friend and collaborator of
Chardin, whose splendid portrait of Aved is now in the Louvre, Paris.
There are portraits by Aved in the Louvre, Versailles, and other French

Aved, Jacques

16

AVERCAMP
museums,
Hague.

as well as

Avercamp, Hendrik
but influenced by

Amsterdam (Rijksmus.), Cleveland Ohio, and The

(1585-1634).

Bruegel

transition to the realistic

dumb and

spent his

life in

A

landscape painter born

the Elder and

Dutch landscape
the isolated

little

in

Amsterdam

Coninxloo and making the
of the 17th century. He was
town of Kampen. He special-

and there are works in Amsterdam (Rijksmus.),
Edinburgh (NG of S), London (NG), Manchester, Rotterdam, St Louis,
Toledo Ohio, and Vienna. Barent Avercamp (1612-79) was his nephew,
pupil, and imitator.
ized

in

ice

scenes

17

B
Baburen, Dirck van

(c.

1595-1624), was one of the three principal painters

in Rome c.1612-c.1620 and there
Montorio) which is derived from Caravaggio's (now in the Vatican). His career was very short and only about
a score of pictures survive, others being in Amsterdam, Boston, New York
(Met. Mus.), Oslo. Utrecht, Vienna and York.
Baciccio (Baciccia), Giovanni Battista Gaulli, called (1639-1709), was a
Genoese whose early contact with works by Rubens and van Dyck influ-

of the

Utrecht School. He was

painted the Deposition

(S. Pietro in

enced him deeply. After the plague killed the rest of his family in 1657 he
went to Rome, where he studied with a Frenchman, thought to have been
Gaspard Poussin. He met Bernini and his rise thereafter was rapid. His
portraits were as highly prized as his decorations (he painted seven Popes),
and a visit to Modena in 1669, which enabled him to study Correggio in
Parma, led to a heightened illusionism in decoration and an increased tenderness of sentiment and colour in his easel pictures. His most famous
is the ceiling of the Gesu in Rome (1672-83), where with a
Rubensian warmth of colour and a staggering illusionism, far exceeding
Pietro da Cortona's and approached later only by Pozzo, he merges
painted figures into painted stucco ones which burst out of the frame into

decoration

the plane of the spectator. Modelli for the

Ohio and

Rome

(Pal. Spada).

Some

Gesu

ceiling are in Cleveland

of his later portraits have a quieter,

many works by him in churches,
museums and palaces in Rome, as well as Fermo (Carmine), Florence
(Uffizi), Genoa (Doria), Manchester, New York (Met. Mus.), Oberlin

almost Marattesque. quality. There are

Ohio, and Sao Paulo.

Backer. Jacob Adriaensz.
and painted portraits

in

(1608-51), was a pupil of Rembrandt about 1632
Amsterdam. Occasionally he crossed the influence

Rembrandt with that of Hals, particularly in his use of light colour.
Amsterdam and The Hague have good examples.
Backhuysen, Ludolf (1631-1708), was a Dutch marine painter, a pupil of
A. van Everdingen. He is well represented in the NG and Nat. Marit.
Mus., London, and his Boats in a Storm (London, Dulwich) may well have
of

been one of the sea-pieces that influenced Turner.

Bacon,

Francis

his output, so

Through

(ft.

1909),

much

his highly

is

a self-taught painter

who

destroys a large part of

so that virtually nothing of his early

work has

survived.

personal subject-matter, which concentrates chiefly on

dogs, carcasses, and evocations of men, including elderly tycoons and

Velazquez's Innocent X, caged

in plate glass

and screaming

in a silent

world

of horror, dissolution and fear, he expresses with energy and singleness of
all the gradations of emotion from pity and disgust to horror, traumatic
revulsion and the unbalance of panic. His work, which can be interpreted

aim

as an attempt to

evoke an

essentially partial, since incomplete, catharsis

most acute form the problem of the relationhim in Aberdeen,
Batley, Belfast, Birmingham, Buffalo NY, Chicago, Detroit, London
(Tate), Manchester (Whitworth), New York (M of MA), Ottawa, and

in the spectator, raises in its

ship between art and pleasure. There are pictures by

Yale.
18

BALLA

Bacon, John
in

Coade's

artificial

stone, and for

He became an
many tombs,

factory.

He also worked
Wedgwood and the Derby porcelain
RA in 1770. He was a fashionable sculptor who
including the huge Chatham monument in West-

(1740-99), began by modelling china figures.

executed
minster

Abbey

(1796).

He was

(1779) and the one to

Dr Johnson

in St Paul's

Cathedral

considered the best sculptor of his day for tombs, as

Banks

and Nollekens for busts, and prided himself on his
Christian sentiment: he was 'pious and zealously attached to Methodism
... yet knowing in the ways of the world
and eager among stockbrokers'. His son John (1777-1859) was his pupil and finished his equestrian William III in St James's Square, London, and also executed a large

was

for history pieces

.

.

.

number of tombs.
Baglione, Giovanni (1571-1644), worked principally in Rome, but was in
Naples 1609/10. He came from the circle of Arpino, and is known, not
so much for his mediocre frescoes in the Vatican Library, or even for his
competent but uninspired altarpieces in Roman churches, as for his connection with Caravaggio, under whose influence his art briefly reached
another plane. In 1603 he sued Caravaggio for libel, and achieved the
supreme revenge of being his first (and only contemporary) biographer. His
.' (Rome,
'Vite de' Pittori
1642) also has his own biography, added by
the printer. His masterpiece was the lost Tabitha (formerly S. Peter's).
Apart from his works in Rome there are others in the Royal Coll. and
.

.

Berlin.

Baldinucci,

Filippo

(c.

1681-1728.

He made

Vasari

1624-96), succeeded

Florentine Art, his 'Notizie de' Professori

.

.

.'

as historiographer of

appearing

in

many volumes,

greater use of documents than his predecessor, and

is due to his appreciation of
importance in the study of paintings.
Baldovinetti, Alesso (c. 1426-99), was a Florentine painter and worker in
mosaic and stained glass who was influenced by Domenico Veneziano. His
experiments with the technique of fresco painting were unfortunate, witness the frescoes in SS. Annunziata (1460/2) and S. Miniato (1466), in
Florence. He painted three panels in the series on the doors of the Silver
Cupboard of SS. Annunziata (now in the Museo di S. Marco, Florence)
which had been begun by Fra Angelico. There are other works by him in
Florence as well as in London, Paris, and elsewhere.
Baldung, Hans (1484/5-1545), called Grien, was a Strasbourg painter and
designer of woodcuts and stained glass. His woodcuts in particular show
the influence of Durer, in whose shop he may have worked before 1505
{see Kleinmeister). His principal picture is the altarpiece in Freiburg
Cathedral (1512-16), but his favourite theme was the female nude, often
in horrible allegories such as the Death and the Woman (1517: Basle).
Outside Germany and Austria there are pictures in the Royal Coll. and in
Cleveland Ohio, The Hague, Liverpool, and London (NG).
Balla, Giacomo (1871-1958), painted subjects in the Roman campagna and
portraits. He was in Paris in 1900-1901, and was strongly influenced by

the vast collection of drawings in the Uffizi
their

Divisionism (already experienced

Futurist Manifesto, and

in

Rome).

In

1910 he signed the

exhibited with the group from 1912, painting the

only amusing picture produced by that dreary
19

movement -

the

Dog on

a

BALTHUS
Leash - before returning

more traditional use of a free Divisionist technique for subjects of social comment. There are works from his Futurist
phase in London (Tate) and New York (M of MA), and of his Divisionist
style in

Balthus

Rome

to a

(Gall. Naz. d'Arte

Mod.).

(Balthasar Klossowski de Rola, 6.1908)

is

a

French painter, the son

who was encouraged by Derain and Bonhe was appointed Director of the French Academy in Rome.

of a Polish painter and writer,

nard. In 1961

His early works are mainly street scenes and interiors derived largely from
the influence of the artists who first encouraged him, and painted in heavy,
earthy colours. His later, post-Rome, works are more consciously poetic
and colourful with distinctly erotic overtones of Jeunes filles enfleur. There
are examples in Chicago, Minneapolis and Paris (Mus. d'Art Moderne).

Bambino (Ital.
Bambocciata

baby). Usually specifically the Christ child.

The name given

and peasant subjects, genby several Dutch and
Flemish artists in Italy in the 17th century. These were popular even in
Italy, although frowned on by the theorists of the Grand Style, as well as
in the North. The name perhaps derives from Bamboccio, although it also
means 'jest, triviality'. The French form bambochade is also used.
Bamboccio (Ital. puppet). A Bentname, on account of his deformity, given
to Pieter van Laer (c. 1592-1642 or later), a Dutch painter from Haarlem
who lived in Rome c. 1625-38, where he was a friend of Poussin, Claude
and Sandrart. In 1638 he returned to Haarlem, where he died. His pictures of everyday life, with peasants, soldiers and brigands, became popular
in Italy (though officially disapproved of by the theorists of Ideal Art), and
were much imitated by other Northern artists who made the journey to
Italy. Unfortunately, many of his pictures have now darkened, but there
are examples in the Royal Coll. and in Amsterdam, Budapest, Dresden,
Florence (Uffizi), Gateshead, Hartford Conn., Munich, New York (Met.
Mus.), Oxford (Ch. Ch.), Paris (Louvre), Rome (Gall. Naz. and Spada),
(Ital.).

to low-life

erally small, with small figures, of the type painted

Vienna (Akad.) and elsewhere.
(Banquet) Piece (Dutch, Bancketgen). A still-life painting developed from the Breakfast Piece, showing a table covered with a carpet
or fine linen, rich foods, gold and silver dishes, and flagons or glasses of
wine. Van Beyeren and Kalf produced typical examples.
Bandinelli, Baccio (1493-1560), was a Florentine sculptor, goldsmith, and
painter whose constant efforts to outdo Michelangelo generally rebounded
on his own head. He was the rival of Cellini, who hated him both on his
own account and on behalf of Michelangelo, but he enjoyed the favour of
the Medici and through them he got the commission for his Hercules and

Bancket

Cacus (1534: Florence, Piazza della Signoria), made in direct emulation of
Michelangelo's David. It was not much liked and Cellini and Bandinelli had
a highly public quarrel over it. His best works are the reliefs in the choir
of Florence Cathedral, but his greatest importance lies in the part he played
in the development of Academies. There are examples in London

(V & A), Oxford (Ashmolean), and Paris (Louvre).
Banks, Thomas (1735-1805), was one of the first British
from the

RA

He went

Rome

sculptors to be

1772 on a scholarship
and remained there seven years: while there he carved the

influenced by Neoclassic ideals.

20

to

in

BARISANUS

V &

He

spent 1781-2 in St Petersburg but in 1786
and worked for the rest of his life on busts and monuments, the most famous of which was the dead child, Penelope Boothby
(Ashbourne, Derbyshire), which moved Queen Charlotte to tears. There
are works in London (NPG, Soane Mus., Westminster Abbey, and St
Paul's), Stratford-on-Avon (a relief formerly on the Shakespeare Gallery,
1789) and elsewhere.
Thetis

(London,

was elected

A).

RA

Baptiste see Monnoyer.
Barbari, Jacopo de' (d.c. 1515/16), is said to have been a Venetian painter,
but from 1500 he worked in Germany and the Netherlands; about 1501 he
wrote a curious letter to the Elector of Saxony called De la eccelentia de
la pictura.He influenced Durer and was also influenced by him; certainly
development of German graphic

Perhaps
none
who has written about a canon of human proportions, save one, Jacopo
.'). There is a portrait
by name, born at Venice, and a charming painter
of Pacioli, the mathematician and pupil of Piero della Francesca, with
another man, signed and dated 1495 (Naples), but this is sometimes held
to be the work of a different painter: on the other hand he certainly painted
the first Still- Life, the Dead Bird, of 1504, at Munich. The reason for
the doubt over the attribution of the Pacioli is that it is signed 'Jaco. Bar.
vigennis P. 1495' - i.e. the painter was in his twenties and thus born c.1475,
which accords ill with an application for a pension (1511/12) which
describes him as 'old and weak'. Both documents may well be correct.
Berlin, Dresden, London (NG), Paris, Philadelphia (Johnson), Verona,
and Weimar also have works of his.
Barbizon School. A mid- 19th-century group of landscape painters, centred
on the village of Barbizon in the Forest of Fontainebleau. Its chief members were Millet, Theodore Rousseau, and Diaz, their aims being an
exact and unprettified rendering of peasant life and scenery, painted on the
spot. This last makes them the precursors of Impressionism, although the
major influences upon them were Corot, Michel, Dutch 17th-century
landscape painters such as Hobbema and Ruisdael, and, to a lesser degree,
Constable and Bonington. Only Millet seems to have had conscious
socialist intentions in his peasant scenes. There are good collections of their
work in Boston and London (V & A), as well as the Louvre and other
French museums.
Barisanus of Trani was a bronze-founder and sculptor working in South Italy
in the last quarter of the 12th century. There are three large pairs of bronze
doors by him at the Cathedrals of Trani, Ravello, and Monreale. Those
at Trani have a self-portrait and a signature and are thought to date from
c.1175. The doors at Ravello are dated 1179, but are not signed. Those at
Monreale are signed and are thought to be contemporary with the other
set of doors made for the same cathedral by the Pisan Bonanus in 1185.
The difference in style is considerable and emphasizes the much greater
dependence of Barisanus upon Byzantine models - in some cases he even
his

engravings

fit

into the

more importantly, he

.

retains

Greek

forms.

Many

art.

inspired Durer's theoretical studies (i can find

inscriptions

-

.

as well as his far greater interest in decorative

of Barisanus's figures are repeated, even on the

and were thus

cast

from a

single

same door,

mould. His doors are made of plates of
21

BARLACH
bronze nailed on to an oak framework, since the technique of bronze casting in the 12th century was still comparatively rudimentary.
Barlach, Ernst (1870-1938), was a German Expressionist sculptor and
illustrator of great tragic power. His pessimistic art was condemned by the

many of
museums and there

Nazis and

his
is

works destroyed: survivors are now

a small Barlach

Museum

in

German

near Liineburg. His best

works are perhaps the woodcarvings of single figures of peasants, beggars, and similar subjects, many of them inspired by a visit to Russia (cf.
Kollwitz). His woodcarving technique was closely based on German Late
Gothic work, and his woodcarvings are his most characteristic works: other
techniques he used include ceramics (e.g. two in Harvard Univ., BuschReisinger Mus.).

Barn a was

a Sienese painter, active

c.

1350/6,

Martini's followers. In the Collegiata
of Christ and he is said to have died
folding,

who was

at S.

the greatest of Simone
Gimignano he painted the Life

as a result of a

leaving the frescoes unfinished.

The

from the

fall

scaf-

Christ carrying the Cross

(New York, Frick Coll.) is attributed to him.
da Modena (active 1362-83) was a N. Italian

Barnaba

painter

who combined

an almost purely Byzantine tradition with some Giottesque elements.
There are dated works in Berlin (1369), Turin (1370: Sabauda Gall.),

London (1374) and elsewhere.
Barocci, Federico (c. 1535-1612), was,

after

Raphael, the most important

painter of Urbino. His soft, colouristic, and emotional art

expression of one aspect of the Counter-Reformation, and
prising that S. Philip Neri regarded

him

highly.

He was

is
it

is

a perfect

not sur-

also a sensitive

He was in Rome in the mid-1550s, when Michelangelo is
encouraged him, and he returned in 1560, making his name
with the decorations in the Casino of Pius IV (1561-3: Vatican). Most of
the rest of his life was spent in Urbino, where he worked for only two hours
a day, crippled by ill-health (yet he lived to extreme old age). He became
a Tertiary of the Order of S. Francis in 1566 and his greatest patron was
the austere and pious Duke of Urbino, although he is better known for his
connection with S. Philip. Many drawings made as studies for his carefullyprepared paintings survive - e.g. the finished Modello in Oxford (Ashmolean) for the Madonna of the Rosary (c. 1589-93: Senigallia, Bishop's
Pal.), for which at least twenty-seven other drawings and studies are
known. Apart from the numerous works in Urbino, there are others in
Brussels, Copenhagen, Florence (Uffizi: including the big Madonna del
Popolo, 1575-9), London (NG), Madrid, Milan (Brera), Munich, Paris
(Louvre), Perugia Cath. (1567, a Descent from the Cross, showing the influence of Pontormo and Correggio), Rome (Borghese and churches),
portrait painter.

said to have

the Vatican, Vienna, and

Weimar.

Baronzio, Giovanni, was a Riminese painter, working in 1345 and earlier,
who was much influenced by Cavallini and Giotto. He was dead by
1362. He is the best evidence for Giotto's activity in Rimini, recorded in
old sources. There are two dated pictures (1345) in Urbino and Mercatello,
near Urbino (but the attribution of this is open to doubt), and frescoes in

Ravenna and Tolentino. Others

are in Baltimore, Berlin,

22

Birmingham

BAROQUE
Inst.), Munich, New York (Met. Mus.), Paris (Jacquemart- Andre),
Rome, Venice, and elsewhere.
Baroque. The style that succeeded Mannerism and lasted, though with

(Barber
Rimini,

profound modifications,
at its

until well into the 18th century.

purest in the so-called 'High Baroque', which

Italy (to

Rome

maturity of

its

even) and to the period

c.

greatest exponent, Bernini.

is

The

style

is

seen

virtually confined to

1630-80, that

is,

roughly, the

The High Baroque,

at its best

union of the arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture,
acting in concert on the emotions of the spectator; inviting him, for example, to participate in the agonies and ecstasies of the Saints. Its blend of
illusionism, light and colour, and movement is calculated to overwhelm the
spectator by a direct emotional appeal. Owing to its essential links with
Counter-Reformation Catholicism, pagan antiquity, and the Mediterranean
generally, many Northerners are - or were until recently - queasy about
it. At the beginning of the 17th century there was an upsurge of spiritual
confidence and a new direction in religious art which combined with a new
approach to classical art to create a new style. The confused and flaccid

and

fullest, is a

forms of

late

Mannerism gave place

to the simple subject matter, the

unidealized naturalism, the uncomplicated iconography and strong chiaro-

scuro of

Caravaggio;

the clarity of composition, the revival of the

balance and harmony of Raphael and the tenderness of handling of Cor-

meaning and imagery of
Annibale Carracci, Domenichino, Guido Reni, and Guercino. Of
the painters of the High Baroque, Lanfranco, Pietro da Cortona,
Baciccio, and, at the end of the century. Padre Pozzo, specialized in
the florid and exuberant illusionism which is one of the characteristics of
the style, while Bernini pushed to their furthest limits the use of painterly
effects in sculpture, the dissolved contour, the rendering of movement by
means of flickering light, the expression of the most profound and
passionately felt religious emotion. Some Roman artists, such as Sacchi,
Maratta, and Algardi, were always more restrained: Poussin, who
lived and worked in Rome for most of his life, developed the classical and

reggio, the nobility of form, the directness of

intellectual aspects of the

Baroque

style

almost to the exclusion of

its

emotional side. Outside Italy, astute politicians like Colbert, Louis XIV's
great Minister, were quick to see that the religious style could easily be
made to subserve autocratic regimes, by the glorification of the monarch,
but in this process a good deal of

pompous

inflation

was superimposed on

the original religious fervour; and the French exponents of the Baroque,

Lebrun and his team, replaced its emotional qualities with a conscious
and frigid use of the antique. Even Rubens, the greatest Northern
Baroque artist, sometimes allowed himself to be used in this way. The style
lasted longest in Catholic Germany and Austria, and had the least influence
in Protestant countries - Britain, Scandinavia and Holland, although there
are aspects of Rembrandt which place him among the greatest artists of the
Baroque, and there is certainly such a thing as English Baroque. In the
North it is still possible to use the term as one of simple abuse (i.e. non-

in

Gothic, unRuskinian), but this
unsophisticated.

A

is

now

confined to the very old or the very

more dangerous misuse

23

is

as a

synonym

for 'Seven-

BARRY
Late Baroque merges almost imperceptibly into the
and the Age of Reason finally rejected both and produced NeoCLASSICISM.
Barry, James (1741-1806), was an Irish painter who was brought to London
by Edmund Burke in 1764. He was encouraged by Reynolds to persist in
grand manner historical painting, and Burke paid his expenses to Italy,
1766-71, where he studied Raphael and Michelangelo with more enthusiin 1773, and from 1777 to 1783
asm than discretion. He was made an
worked on a huge decoration in the Great Room of the Society of Arts of
six pictures (two are forty-two feet long) representing The Progress of
Human Culture. When they were exhibited in 1783 Dr Johnson said of
them: 'Whatever the hand may have done, the mind has done its part.
There is a grasp of mind there which you find nowhere else.' He became
in 1782, but in 1799 was expelled for his
Professor of Painting at the
bitter attacks on his fellow-members and on the memory of Reynolds.
Blake's projected poem 'Barry' exists only as a fragment, which is a diatribe against Reynolds. He died in great poverty and squalor. There are
works in Dublin (NG), Cork, London (Tate), Manchester, and Yale
(CBA). He represents, with Fuseli and Haydon, another instance of
the failure of the English patron to appreciate history painting on a gigantic
scale and on heroic themes, based on a studious adaptation of the Italian
teenth Century'.

Rococo

RA

RA

Grand

Style. His portraits are very fine, but

suaded to demean himself to paint one:
memorial.

Bartolo
of the

di Fredi

was a Sienese who died

Bartolommeo
Bartolommeo

di

in 1410,

Barna.
Giovanni see 'Alunno

Lorenzetti and

he could only rarely be per-

his prints are

but

now perhaps

who worked

his best

in the style

of

di

Domenico'.

della Porta, Fra (c.l474-probably 1517),

was born

in

Florence

Cosimo Rosselli in 1484. He was in the convent of
S. Marco in 1498 when it was stormed and its Prior, Savonarola, dragged
to prison, and he is said to have vowed then to become a monk, which he
did in 1500. His earliest extant work (a Last Judgement, 1499: Mus. di S.
Marco) is now in very bad condition but enough remains to show its profound influence on the young Raphael. In 1504 he became head of the
and apprenticed

to

monastery workshop, a position once held by Fra Angelico. He visited
Venice in 1508 and after his return took Mariotto Albertinelli into partnership, and he was in Rome in 1514 or 1515, both these visits being
important for the development of his ideals of simplicity and balance in
composition, decorum of presentation, the use of telling gestures and rapt
expressions, the exclusion of picturesque detail, and the adoption of sober

and rather generalized
posto for

its

own

settings.

sake, and was

He

introduced figures

among

the

first

in

strong contrap-

to replace

contemporary

costume with nondescript drapery in his religious figures, using this to stress
the gulf between the divine and the earthly. All these ideas mark the
change from the style of the 15th to that of the 16th century, and he was
one of its most important initiators, his influence being spread by his huge
output of drawings. After his death the S. Marco workshop petered out.
There are works in Berlin, Besan^on (Cath.), Cambridge Mass. (Fogg
Mus.), Florence (Accad., Pitti, Uffizi, Mus. di S. Marco), London (NG),
24

BASSANO
Los Angeles, Lucca (Mus. and Cath.), Paris (Louvre), Philadelphia (JohnRome (Gall. Naz.), Stuttgart, the Vatican, Vienna, and Washington

son),

(NG).
Barye, Antoine-Louis (1796-1875),

the son of a Paris goldsmith, served in

Armies 1812-14 and began to study sculpture only in 1816.
He worked for a goldsmith from 1823 to 1831 in the Jardin des Plantes,
making models of the animals, and from then on devoted himself almost
exclusively to animal sculpture. In 1848 he went bankrupt but was
appointed Keeper of Casts at the Louvre (1848-50) and was later teacher
the Napoleonic

of zoological drawing at the

Musee

d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. His

first

major work of a non-animal subject was the Napoleon dominating History
and the Arts (1855-7), a pediment on the Pavilion de l'Horloge of the
Louvre, and in 1860 he made the equestrian Napoleon for Ajaccio, Napoleon's birthplace. He was one of the major Romantic artists of the 19th
century and his choice of violent - even sadistic - subjects - tigers, jaguars,
and other carnivores, often shown devouring other animals and even
human beings - gives him a certain affinity with Delacroix, although
Barye was never able to invest the human figure with Romantic overtones.

Some

of his small figure groups, such as the Theseus,

show strong

influence

from archaic Greek sculpture, for which he was criticized at the time. There
is a large collection of his works in the Louvre and over 140 in Washington
(Corcoran). He also painted landscapes in the Barbizon manner (e.g.

London, NG).
Basaiti, Marco (c. 1470-1530), was a Venetian painter much influenced by
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1500-10) and then by Giorgione. There is a signed
Madonna in London (NG) which shows him using Bellini's types.
Pseudo- Basaiti is probably only a name for one aspect of Bellini.
Baschenis, Evaristo (c. 1617-77), was a priest in Bergamo who painted stilllife pictures of musical instruments which are unique in the 17th century.
The detail reminds one of contemporary Dutch still-life, but there is a dramatic effect of light, as well as a concentration on geometry, which reflects
the influence of Caravaggio and foreshadows Cezanne. Most of his works
are in

Bergamo.

Bas-Relief see Relief.
Bassano. This was the name

of a family of Venetian painters of which there
were four main members. Francesco da Ponte the Elder (c. 1475-1539)
worked in Bassano and was a modest provincial follower of the Bellini. His
son Jacopo (c. 1510/18-92) was the most considerable artist of the family.
He was a pupil in Venice of Bonifazio de' Pitati, and was independent
by the early 1530s. Although he worked almost entirely in Bassano he was
by no means a provincial painter, and his works show successive waves of
influence, proving him to have been in constant and sensitive touch with
Venice. His was a highly personal style, robust and energetic, with stocky
figures in strong chiaroscuro and heavy impasto, with at least one kneeling

towards the spectator, almost as a signpioneered the large, rustic genre scene depicting the seasons,

figure with the soles of his feet

manual.

He

many figures and animals, often set in a mountainous
and stormy landscape, and favoured religious subjects which allowed him
to introduce peasants and animals (in which he was one of the first to be

or the trades, with

25

BASTIEN-LEPAGE
and heaped-up Still- Life of fruit, game, vegetables, and
Aertsen, Bueckelaer). Jacopo had three painter sons.
Francesco the Younger (1549-92) ran the Venetian branch of the workshop. His paintings are often based on his father's drawings and closely,
but rather weakly, follow his style. He committed suicide a few months
after his father's death. Leandro (1557-1622) worked in the Venetian studio under Francesco, and after the latter's death took over the workshop.
He was the chief portrait painter of the family, and his portraits are